asecos: SAMPLE - Whitepaper Storing and charging lithium-ion batteries safely

1 RIST OF FIRE ∙ FIRE PROTECTION CONCEPT ∙ SAFETY CONCEPT ∙ RISK ASSESSMENT ∙ LEGAL BASIS ∙ PROTECTIVE ME UM-ION BATTERIES ∙ STORING ∙ CHARGING ∙ BATTERIES ∙ RIST OF FIRE ∙ FIRE PROTECTION CONCEPT ∙ SAFETY CONC NTILATION ∙ FIRE SUPPRESSION ∙ OVERHEATING ∙ LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES ∙ STORING ∙ CHARGING ∙ BATTERIES ∙ RIS STORAGE ∙ SAFETY STORAGE CABINET ∙ TECHNICAL VENTILATION ∙ FIRE SUPPRESSION ∙ OVERHEATING ∙ LITHIUM-I ENT ∙ LEGAL BASIS ∙ PROTECTIVE MEASURES ∙ IMPROPER STORAGE ∙ SAFETY STORAGE CABINET ∙ TECHNICAL VENT OTECTION CONCEPT ∙ SAFETY CONCEPT ∙ RISK ASSESSMENT ∙ LEGAL BASIS ∙ PROTECTIVE MEASURES ∙ IMPROPER ORING ∙ CHARGING ∙ BATTERIES ∙ RIST OF FIRE ∙ FIRE PROTECTION CONCEPT ∙ SAFETY CONCEPT ∙ RISK ASSESSME PPRESSION ∙ OVERHEATING ∙ LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES ∙ STORING ∙ CHARGING ∙ BATTERIES ∙ RIST OF FIRE ∙ FIRE PRO Y STORAGE CABINET ∙ TECHNICAL VENTILATION ∙ FIRE SUPPRESSION ∙ OVERHEATING ∙ LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES ∙ S ∙ PROTECTIVE MEASURES ∙ IMPROPER STORAGE ∙ SAFETY STORAGE CABINET ∙ TECHNICAL VENTILATION ∙ FIRE SU PT ∙ SAFETY CONCEPT ∙ RISK ASSESSMENT ∙ LEGAL BASIS ∙ PROTECTIVE MEASURES ∙ IMPROPER STORAGE ∙ SAFETY G ∙ BATTERIES ∙ RIST OF FIRE ∙ FIRE PROTECTION CONCEPT ∙ SAFETY CONCEPT ∙ RISK ASSESSMENT ∙ LEGAL BASIS ∙ HEATING ∙ LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES ∙ STORING ∙ CHARGING ∙ BATTERIES ∙ RIST OF FIRE ∙ FIRE PROTECTION CONCEP T ∙ TECHNICAL VENTILATION ∙ FIRE SUPPRESSION ∙ OVERHEATING ∙ LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES ∙ STORING ∙ CHARGIN ASURES ∙ IMPROPER STORAGE ∙ SAFETY STORAGE CABINET ∙ TECHNICAL VENTILATION ∙ FIRE SUPPRESSION ∙ OVER PT ∙ RISK ASSESSMENT ∙ LEGAL BASIS ∙ PROTECTIVE MEASURES ∙ IMPROPER STORAGE ∙ SAFETY STORAGE CABINET RIST OF FIRE ∙ FIRE PROTECTION CONCEPT ∙ SAFETY CONCEPT ∙ RISK ASSESSMENT ∙ LEGAL BASIS ∙ PROTECTIVE ME UM-ION BATTERIES ∙ STORING ∙ CHARGING ∙ BATTERIES ∙ RIST OF FIRE ∙ FIRE PROTECTION CONCEPT ∙ SAFETY CONC NTILATION ∙ FIRE SUPPRESSION ∙ OVERHEATING ∙ LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES ∙ STORING ∙ CHARGING ∙ BATTERIES ∙ RIS STORAGE ∙ SAFETY STORAGE CABINET ∙ TECHNICAL VENTILATION ∙ FIRE SUPPRESSION ∙ OVERHEATING ∙ LITHIUM-I ENT ∙ LEGAL BASIS ∙ PROTECTIVE MEASURES ∙ IMPROPER STORAGE ∙ SAFETY STORAGE CABINET ∙ TECHNICAL VENT OTECTION CONCEPT ∙ SAFETY CONCEPT ∙ RISK ASSESSMENT ∙ LEGAL BASIS ∙ PROTECTIVE MEASURES ∙ IMPROPER ORING ∙ CHARGING ∙ BATTERIES ∙ RIST OF FIRE ∙ FIRE PROTECTION CONCEPT ∙ SAFETY CONCEPT ∙ RISK ASSESSME PPRESSION ∙ OVERHEATING ∙ LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES ∙ STORING ∙ CHARGING ∙ BATTERIES ∙ RIST OF FIRE ∙ FIRE PRO Y STORAGE CABINET ∙ TECHNICAL VENTILATION ∙ FIRE SUPPRESSION ∙ OVERHEATING ∙ LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES ∙ S ∙ PROTECTIVE MEASURES ∙ IMPROPER STORAGE ∙ SAFETY STORAGE CABINET ∙ TECHNICAL VENTILATION ∙ FIRE SU PT ∙ SAFETY CONCEPT ∙ RISK ASSESSMENT ∙ LEGAL BASIS ∙ PROTECTIVE MEASURES ∙ IMPROPER STORAGE ∙ SAFETY G ∙ BATTERIES ∙ RIST OF FIRE ∙ FIRE PROTECTION CONCEPT ∙ SAFETY CONCEPT ∙ RISK ASSESSMENT ∙ LEGAL BASIS ∙ HEATING ∙ LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES ∙ STORING ∙ CHARGING ∙ BATTERIES ∙ RIST OF FIRE ∙ FIRE PROTECTION CONCEP T ∙ TECHNICAL VENTILATION ∙ FIRE SUPPRESSION ∙ OVERHEATING ∙ LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES ∙ STORING ∙ CHARGIN ASURES ∙ IMPROPER STORAGE ∙ SAFETY STORAGE CABINET ∙ TECHNICAL VENTILATION ∙ FIRE SUPPRESSION ∙ OVER PT ∙ RISK ASSESSMENT ∙ LEGAL BASIS ∙ PROTECTIVE MEASURES ∙ IMPROPER STORAGE ∙ SAFETY STORAGE CABINET RIST OF FIRE ∙ FIRE PROTECTION CONCEPT ∙ SAFETY CONCEPT ∙ RISK ASSESSMENT ∙ LEGAL BASIS ∙ PROTECTIVE ME UM-ION BATTERIES ∙ STORING ∙ CHARGING ∙ BATTERIES ∙ RIST OF FIRE ∙ FIRE PROTECTION CONCEPT ∙ SAFETY CONC NTILATION ∙ FIRE SUPPRESSION ∙ OVERHEATING ∙ LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES ∙ STORING ∙ CHARGING ∙ BATTERIES ∙ RIS STORAGE ∙ SAFETY STORAGE CABINET ∙ TECHNICAL VENTILATION ∙ FIRE SUPPRESSION ∙ OVERHEATING ∙ LITHIUM-I ENT ∙ LEGAL BASIS ∙ PROTECTIVE MEASURES ∙ IMPROPER STORAGE ∙ SAFETY STORAGE CABINET ∙ TECHNICAL VENT OTECTION CONCEPT ∙ SAFETY CONCEPT ∙ RISK ASSESSMENT ∙ LEGAL BASIS ∙ PROTECTIVE MEASURES ∙ IMPROPER ORING ∙ CHARGING ∙ BATTERIES ∙ RIST OF FIRE ∙ FIRE PROTECTION CONCEPT ∙ SAFETY CONCEPT ∙ RISK ASSESSME PPRESSION ∙ OVERHEATING ∙ LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES ∙ STORING ∙ CHARGING ∙ BATTERIES ∙ RIST OF FIRE ∙ FIRE PRO Y STORAGE CABINET ∙ TECHNICAL VENTILATION ∙ FIRE SUPPRESSION ∙ OVERHEATING ∙ LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES ∙ S ∙ PROTECTIVE MEASURES ∙ IMPROPER STORAGE ∙ SAFETY STORAGE CABINET ∙ TECHNICAL VENTILATION ∙ FIRE SU PT ∙ SAFETY CONCEPT ∙ RISK ASSESSMENT ∙ LEGAL BASIS ∙ PROTECTIVE MEASURES ∙ IMPROPER STORAGE ∙ SAFETY G ∙ BATTERIES ∙ RIST OF FIRE ∙ FIRE PROTECTION CONCEPT ∙ SAFETY CONCEPT ∙ RISK ASSESSMENT ∙ LEGAL BASIS ∙ HEATING ∙ LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES ∙ STORING ∙ CHARGING ∙ BATTERIES ∙ RIST OF FIRE ∙ FIRE PROTECTION CONCEP T ∙ TECHNICAL VENTILATION ∙ FIRE SUPPRESSION ∙ OVERHEATING ∙ LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES ∙ STORING ∙ CHARGIN ASURES ∙ IMPROPER STORAGE ∙ SAFETY STORAGE CABINET ∙ TECHNICAL VENTILATION ∙ FIRE SUPPRESSION ∙ OVER PT ∙ RISK ASSESSMENT ∙ LEGAL BASIS ∙ PROTECTIVE MEASURES ∙ IMPROPER STORAGE ∙ SAFETY STORAGE CABINET RIST OF FIRE ∙ FIRE PROTECTION CONCEPT ∙ SAFETY CONCEPT ∙ RISK ASSESSMENT ∙ LEGAL BASIS ∙ PROTECTIVE ME UM-ION BATTERIES ∙ STORING ∙ CHARGING ∙ BATTERIES ∙ RIST OF FIRE ∙ FIRE PROTECTION CONCEPT ∙ SAFETY CONC Storing and charging lithium-ion batteries safely – With helpful tips and checklists Author: Dr. Friedhelm Kring – free Specialist journalist with focus on environmental protection and safety at work r e d p a p e r

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3 CONTENT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1. Increasing popularity, underestimated risks................................................................................................................ Page 4 1.1 How lithium-ion batteries work....................................................................................................................................... Page 5 1.2 With higher energy density comes a greater risk of fire........................................................................................ Page 6 2. Risks and dangers of improper storage....................................................................................................................... Page 8 2.1 Causes of battery fires........................................................................................................................................................ Page 8 2.2 Secondary consequences: toxic decomposition, environmental hazards....................................................... Page 10 3. What do the experts say?.................................................................................................................................................. Page 10 4. Legal basis for handling lithium-ion batteries in use............................................................................................... Page 12 5. General safety rules............................................................................................................................................................ Page 13 5.1 Storing lithium-ion batteries safely................................................................................................................................. Page 13 5.2 Safe charging of lithium-ion batteries........................................................................................................................... Page 13 5.3 From risk assessment to safety concept - with convenient checklist............................................................... Page 14 5.4 Insurance cover and limitation of liability are at risk............................................................................................... Page 15 5.5 Reacting confidently in the event of damage............................................................................................................ Page 15 6. Safety cabinets as the basis of an operational fire protection concept............................................................ Page 16 6.1 Safety storage cabinets for storing lithium-ion batteries ...................................................................................... Page 16 6.2 Alternatives to safety storage cabinets?....................................................................................................................... Page 17 7. Glossary / Abbreviations................................................................................................................................................... Page 18

4 1. Increasing popularity, underestimated risks There are very few technology trends that have become so firmly established in recent years than the development of ever more powerful energy storage systems based on lithium (Li). For about 30 years, lithium-ion batteries and accumulators have been conquering the market for energy storage and are used in more and more products and devices. It is no coincidence that the development of the Li-memory technology was awarded with the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 2019. Whether power tools, garden tools or e-bikes, our private and professional everyday life without lithium batteries is now unimaginable. But this boom has a flip side. Because these energy storage systems that are so practical and efficient are anything but harmless. They can burst into flames and cause serious fires. Even specially shielded batteries can develop temperatures of over 1,000 °C, as experiments by the BDE have shown. In recent years, these fire risks have led to frequent recalls of products from a wide range of types and sources of lithium-ion batteries. As more and more batteries are manufactured, the need to transport, store and preserve them has led to an increase in fires with high damages as a direct result of lithium-ion batteries. In 2019 alone, around 12,700 tonnes of new lithium-ion batteries came into circulation. Reliable concepts are essential to safely control these risks. Dr. Friedhelm Kring Graduate biologist, studied in Constance and Innsbruck, dissertation on the mode of action of plant protection products has been working independently in his own editorial office since 1997, initially as Info-broker, editor and online editor, today working as a freelance specialist journalist, author, reviewer and speaker with a focus on topics related to safety and security, especially occupational safety, product safety, environmental protection and health at work THE AUTHOR

20 NTILATION ∙ FIRE SUPPRESSION ∙ OVERHEATING ∙ LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES ∙ STORING ∙ CHARGING ∙ BATTERIES ∙ R ER STORAGE ∙ SAFETY STORAGE CABINET ∙ TECHNICAL VENTILATION ∙ FIRE SUPPRESSION ∙ OVERHEATING ∙ LITHIU MENT ∙ LEGAL BASIS ∙ PROTECTIVE MEASURES ∙ IMPROPER STORAGE ∙ SAFETY STORAGE CABINET ∙ TECHNICAL VEN OTECTION CONCEPT ∙ SAFETY CONCEPT ∙ RISK ASSESSMENT ∙ LEGAL BASIS ∙ PROTECTIVE MEASURES ∙ IMPROPER S TORING ∙ CHARGING ∙ BATTERIES ∙ RIST OF FIRE ∙ FIRE PROTECTION CONCEPT ∙ SAFETY CONCEPT ∙ RISK ASSESSME PPRESSION ∙ OVERHEATING ∙ LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES ∙ STORING ∙ CHARGING ∙ BATTERIES ∙ RIST OF FIRE ∙ FIRE PRO STORAGE CABINET ∙ TECHNICAL VENTILATION ∙ FIRE SUPPRESSION ∙ OVERHEATING ∙ LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES ∙ STO PROTECTIVE MEASURES ∙ IMPROPER STORAGE ∙ SAFETY STORAGE CABINET ∙ TECHNICAL VENTILATION ∙ FIRE SUP PT ∙ SAFETY CONCEPT ∙ RISK ASSESSMENT ∙ LEGAL BASIS ∙ PROTECTIVE MEASURES ∙ IMPROPER STORAGE ∙ SAFETY NG ∙ BATTERIES ∙ RIST OF FIRE ∙ FIRE PROTECTION CONCEPT ∙ SAFETY CONCEPT ∙ RISK ASSESSMENT ∙ LEGAL BASIS HEATING ∙ LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES ∙ STORING ∙ CHARGING ∙ BATTERIES ∙ RIST OF FIRE ∙ FIRE PROTECTION CONCEP T ∙ TECHNICAL VENTILATION ∙ FIRE SUPPRESSION ∙ OVERHEATING ∙ LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES ∙ STORING ∙ CHARGING SURES ∙ IMPROPER STORAGE ∙ SAFETY STORAGE CABINET ∙ TECHNICAL VENTILATION ∙ FIRE SUPPRESSION ∙ OVERH PT ∙ RISK ASSESSMENT ∙ LEGAL BASIS ∙ PROTECTIVE MEASURES ∙ IMPROPER STORAGE ∙ SAFETY STORAGE CABINET ST OF FIRE ∙ FIRE PROTECTION CONCEPT ∙ SAFETY CONCEPT ∙ RISK ASSESSMENT ∙ LEGAL BASIS ∙ PROTECTIVE MEA M-ION BATTERIES ∙ STORING ∙ CHARGING ∙ BATTERIES ∙ RIST OF FIRE ∙ FIRE PROTECTION CONCEPT ∙ SAFETY CONCE NTILATION ∙ FIRE SUPPRESSION ∙ OVERHEATING ∙ LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES ∙ STORING ∙ CHARGING ∙ BATTERIES ∙ R ER STORAGE ∙ SAFETY STORAGE CABINET ∙ TECHNICAL VENTILATION ∙ FIRE SUPPRESSION ∙ OVERHEATING ∙ LITHIU MENT ∙ LEGAL BASIS ∙ PROTECTIVE MEASURES ∙ IMPROPER STORAGE ∙ SAFETY STORAGE CABINET ∙ TECHNICAL VEN OTECTION CONCEPT ∙ SAFETY CONCEPT ∙ RISK ASSESSMENT ∙ LEGAL BASIS ∙ PROTECTIVE MEASURES ∙ IMPROPER S TORING ∙ CHARGING ∙ BATTERIES ∙ RIST OF FIRE ∙ FIRE PROTECTION CONCEPT ∙ SAFETY CONCEPT ∙ RISK ASSESSME PPRESSION ∙ OVERHEATING ∙ LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES ∙ STORING ∙ CHARGING ∙ BATTERIES ∙ RIST OF FIRE ∙ FIRE PRO STORAGE CABINET ∙ TECHNICAL VENTILATION ∙ FIRE SUPPRESSION ∙ OVERHEATING ∙ LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES ∙ STO PROTECTIVE MEASURES ∙ IMPROPER STORAGE ∙ SAFETY STORAGE CABINET ∙ TECHNICAL VENTILATION ∙ FIRE SUP PT ∙ SAFETY CONCEPT ∙ RISK ASSESSMENT ∙ LEGAL BASIS ∙ PROTECTIVE MEASURES ∙ IMPROPER STORAGE ∙ SAFETY NG ∙ BATTERIES ∙ RIST OF FIRE ∙ FIRE PROTECTION CONCEPT ∙ SAFETY CONCEPT ∙ RISK ASSESSMENT ∙ LEGAL BASIS HEATING ∙ LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES ∙ STORING ∙ CHARGING ∙ BATTERIES ∙ RIST OF FIRE ∙ FIRE PROTECTION CONCEP T ∙ TECHNICAL VENTILATION ∙ FIRE SUPPRESSION ∙ OVERHEATING ∙ LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES ∙ STORING ∙ CHARGING SURES ∙ IMPROPER STORAGE ∙ SAFETY STORAGE CABINET ∙ TECHNICAL VENTILATION ∙ FIRE SUPPRESSION ∙ OVERH PT ∙ RISK ASSESSMENT ∙ LEGAL BASIS ∙ PROTECTIVE MEASURES ∙ IMPROPER STORAGE ∙ SAFETY STORAGE CABINET ST OF FIRE ∙ FIRE PROTECTION CONCEPT ∙ SAFETY CONCEPT ∙ RISK ASSESSMENT ∙ LEGAL BASIS ∙ PROTECTIVE MEA M-ION BATTERIES ∙ STORING ∙ CHARGING ∙ BATTERIES ∙ RIST OF FIRE ∙ FIRE PROTECTION CONCEPT ∙ SAFETY CONCE NTILATION ∙ FIRE SUPPRESSION ∙ OVERHEATING ∙ LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES ∙ STORING ∙ CHARGING ∙ BATTERIES ∙ R ER STORAGE ∙ SAFETY STORAGE CABINET ∙ TECHNICAL VENTILATION ∙ FIRE SUPPRESSION ∙ OVERHEATING ∙ LITHIU MENT ∙ LEGAL BASIS ∙ PROTECTIVE MEASURES ∙ IMPROPER STORAGE ∙ SAFETY STORAGE CABINET ∙ TECHNICAL VEN OTECTION CONCEPT ∙ SAFETY CONCEPT ∙ RISK ASSESSMENT ∙ LEGAL BASIS ∙ PROTECTIVE MEASURES ∙ IMPROPER S TORING ∙ CHARGING ∙ BATTERIES ∙ RIST OF FIRE ∙ FIRE PROTECTION CONCEPT ∙ SAFETY CONCEPT ∙ RISK ASSESSME PPRESSION ∙ OVERHEATING ∙ LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES ∙ STORING ∙ CHARGING ∙ BATTERIES ∙ RIST OF FIRE ∙ FIRE PRO STORAGE CABINET ∙ TECHNICAL VENTILATION ∙ FIRE SUPPRESSION ∙ OVERHEATING ∙ LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES ∙ STO PROTECTIVE MEASURES ∙ IMPROPER STORAGE ∙ SAFETY STORAGE CABINET ∙ TECHNICAL VENTILATION ∙ FIRE SUP PT ∙ SAFETY CONCEPT ∙ RISK ASSESSMENT ∙ LEGAL BASIS ∙ PROTECTIVE MEASURES ∙ IMPROPER STORAGE ∙ SAFETY NG ∙ BATTERIES ∙ RIST OF FIRE ∙ FIRE PROTECTION CONCEPT ∙ SAFETY CONCEPT ∙ RISK ASSESSMENT ∙ LEGAL BASIS HEATING ∙ LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES ∙ STORING ∙ CHARGING ∙ BATTERIES ∙ RIST OF FIRE ∙ FIRE PROTECTION CONCEP T ∙ TECHNICAL VENTILATION ∙ FIRE SUPPRESSION ∙ OVERHEATING ∙ LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES ∙ STORING ∙ CHARGING SURES ∙ IMPROPER STORAGE ∙ SAFETY STORAGE CABINET ∙ TECHNICAL VENTILATION ∙ FIRE SUPPRESSION ∙ OVERH PT ∙ RISK ASSESSMENT ∙ LEGAL BASIS ∙ PROTECTIVE MEASURES ∙ IMPROPER STORAGE ∙ SAFETY STORAGE CABINET ST OF FIRE ∙ FIRE PROTECTION CONCEPT ∙ SAFETY CONCEPT ∙ RISK ASSESSMENT ∙ LEGAL BASIS ∙ PROTECTIVE MEA M-ION BATTERIES ∙ STORING ∙ CHARGING ∙ BATTERIES ∙ RIST OF FIRE ∙ FIRE PROTECTION CONCEPT ∙ SAFETY CONCE NTILATION ∙ FIRE SUPPRESSION ∙ OVERHEATING ∙ LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES ∙ STORING ∙ CHARGING ∙ BATTERIES ∙ R ER STORAGE ∙ SAFETY STORAGE CABINET ∙ TECHNICAL VENTILATION ∙ FIRE SUPPRESSION ∙ OVERHEATING ∙ LITHIU For all other countries please contact asecos Headquarters in Germany. © asecos GmbH 11/2022 asecos GmbH Sicherheit und Umweltschutz Weiherfeldsiedlung 16–18 DE-63584 Gründau +49 6051 92200 +49 6051 922010 info@asecos.com asecos Ltd. 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